Tuesday, October 31, 2017


Extra post this week because:

Question: When will we get an update on when the book is going to be released?

I could give you an update on release date but it would be bullshit. Which is the main reason we aren't doing it.

The sea of responsibilities

Basically, what we have learned through this whole process is that shit keeps happening and since we aren't a big enough operation to have backup people who can jump in to hit deadline targets when something happens, we can't give accurate long-term dates because if anything happens, they get bombed.

There was a time once when we thought we'd be done in a few months. (That was because we hadn't done this before. It was too optimistic and we would not say that now but us of the past won't change their minds retroactively.) Then there was a time we thought we'd be done within the year, but a team member started getting sick. Then there was a time we thought we'd do a compromise release with most of the content, but then we lost that team member for an extended time. So we've put out lots of time estimates and none of them were right, and if we're tired of being wrong about it we can only imagine you're all even more tired of that.

So we don't want to give you an update on when the book is coming out until we hit a concrete milestone where we can make a reasonable estimate. (Like say, "it's done and the layout department is putting it together" or "we sent it to the printer and here's their estimate" or something.) If we do, there's a chance it'll end up being wrong like the last set, and then people would be justifiably upset about what's essentially a broken promise between developer and backer/player. That sucks.

So the best I can do is say "our heartfelt guess-wish is summer 2018 but there is no official estimate update" and that we'll tell you as soon as we have anything useful like "this is done" or "this process started". Also that we're as always committed to working on it and moving as fast as we can move.

Sunday, October 29, 2017

Sundays Are For Updates

The world turns on and so do our constant efforts!

John bestowing updates on eager traveling blog-readers

What's Up With Writing

Sphere Augments are completed for the Mortal level! This actually didn't take the majority of our time as much as setting up future stuff. Because there are going to be other Spheres in the future past the core book, and we want to make sure everything is balanced so they don't end up being weird things that get stapled on later and don't match, designing Sphere Augments meant also figuring out what the Augments of the future would be. So annoying for you guys because it took some extra time and you won't see it for a while, but the good news is that means it's balanced and in the future it'll already be done.

We also did that with some Blessing types that cross different Spheres, so you'll see recurring themes in some Spheres. So if you wonder "hey, why do two Spheres have THIS Blessing but these other three have THIS one," it's because they're balanced across the Spheres of the Future. Which hopefully will be available sooner than later but every time anyone says that both of us just wave desperately at the core book.

Next up are fixing some busted Divine Favors (thanks to playtesters helpfully abusing them for us!), Devotional go-overs and checking old math on things like durability, damage, and players throwing themselves off roofs.

This last week we also did some work on the Call to Adventure, which you folks may remember is the quickstart small adventure for the game to give people a try-out of the system and its concepts. HJ is... not an uncomplicated game. It has a lot of stuff going on in it. So we did a lot of work on getting the Call to a more simplified and easy to pick up form.

Congratulations, you rolled so high you also got a goat!

What's Up With Playtesting

A new player finished creation and is joining Team Basilisk: Adrian Caius!

Adrian Caius - accountant firm who works for amy's father (legal side of the business, stocks and such), when father started getting indicted he was in legal trouble as well (he may not have done it but he knew there was shady stuff going on); started having prophecies about the coming of the age of heroes, so he went to psych eval instead of jail, spent a few years trying to appear normal to be declared rehabbed, recently released... then meets Thoth a few days later

Adrian is an unassuming little man who spent most of his adult life in an unassuming occupation: accounting. But he happened to work for someone who happened not to be particularly scrupulous; as accountant to a semi-famous drug smuggler, his comfortable career ended when his boss was indicted and he was brought under legal fire as well (and while he never doctored anything himself, he couldn't quite claim that he didn't know something shady was going on). However, he had recently begun having disturbing dreams, which he became convinced were prophecies about an impending Age of Heroes, and he was sent for psychiatric treatment instead of being imprisoned. After a long period of learning to think of his dreams as mere psychiatric aberrations, he was released...

...only to immediately meet concrete proof in the shape of the Egyptian god Thoth, who informed him that there was more at work than he had any way of knowing, and neatly destroyed his idea of living any kind of a normal life.

Adrian, in spite of his rocky path toward heroism so far, brings a much-needed intellectualism to the group, and is ready to shine in matters of magic, creativity, and seeing a solution that his fellows might not. Assuming that any of them figure out how to trust one another in time!

Relief carvers immortalize Team Basilisk on parade

The Personal Stuff

Anne says she went to the doctor but even though I waited in doctor waiting rooms, I'm pretty sure instead she was going to Fight Club, because she kept coming back with giant bruises and less blood than she went in with. She says this is the result of "tests" but I await the day when we retire from our day jobs because she just won the MMA championship.

She's on doctor's orders to type only as much as is "professionally necessary", which she interprets as day job and HJ only, but she's trying to cut it down so she might be around a little less. We have giant whiteboards, which are big enough for my terribad handwriting so I can do the writing for her for a while and we can keep working.

Artist's depiction of Anne preparing to come down from an elephant and destroy her challenger

Anne says she's short on blog questions and she wants to try out her voice to text writing software to see how well it goes, so if you want weird robot posts, she's taking suggestions. Until next time!

Wednesday, October 25, 2017

Mythology Talk: Wrecking Ball God

Question: Can you talk about Takemikazuchi? He seems like an interesting deity...

He is! (Realistically, most deities are interesting. That's one of the reasons we're all in this game. But let's talk about this one today!)

Takemikazuchi-no-Kami translates to Brave-Awful-Possessing Deity, because he is all of those things (brave, awful, and possessing lots of stuff); he also appears as Kashima-no-Kami (Deity of Kashima, where a major shrine to him is located), Takefutsu-no-Kami (Brave Snapping Deity), and Toyofutsu-no-Kami (Luxuriant-Snapping-Deity). He's also referred to in translation as Ikazuchi-no-Kami (Thundering Deity), although it's hard to tell if that's a literal translation, a misunderstanding of the kanji, or an intentional pun where the name was meant to be read more than one way. (Translation: the discipline where no matter how right you are, you're also always wrong.)

These are all active, serious business adjectives in this guy's name, so you know he was out there Doing Stuff.

Takemikazuchi is one of the gods created when Izanagi beheaded Kagutsuchi, the fire god, whose birth had killed his mother and Izanagi's wife, Izanami; he sprang fully formed from the blood that gushed from the wound along with several other deities, ready to get on with affecting the heavenly landscape. Once the gods have decided that the earth, newly discovered/created and full of stuff, needs to be conquered by them, they decide that Takemikazuchi is the man for the job and send him down there to claim the area for them (hilariously, his "father", Izanagi's sword, recommends him for this job, so he gets volunteered by an inanimate object and everyone nods sagely and off he goes). He descends to earth and decides to impress the locals by embedding his sword hilt-first in an ocean-wave, and then sitting happily on its very point in order to start these negotiations.

Okuninushi, the god in charge on earth at the moment (and an illegitimate son of Susano-o-no-Mikoto, one of the heavenly deities), arrives to negotiate and declares that his children, the lesser gods, get to make this decision; one of them agrees to let the heavenly deities be in charge, but the other, Takeminakata, refuses to submit unless Takemikazuchi can prove the heavenly gods are superior by beating him in a physical contest. They participate in the very first recorded sumo wrestling match, with Takemikazuchi barely triumphing after his opponent's arms turn into icicles and then swords when he grabs them, before he is able to exert his divine strength and crush them. Having won the day, he claims the earth for the heavenly deities and then heads home, and the earthly deities retire to their individual shrines to maintain much smaller areas of influence in the future. Later, when Jimmu, the first emperor of Japan who was descended from the sun goddess Amaterasu, begins to conquer his territories, Takemikazuchi refuses to come down to answer his prayer, but he does send down his famous balancing-in-the-ocean sword, which independently vanquishes Jimmu's enemies and, not coincidentally, prevents Takemikazuchi from having to come down himself and leave his cushy heavenly palace.

These are the only specific stories in the official written mythology records of Japan, the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki, but there are lots of other popular myths about Takemikazuchi, as well. In his guise as Kashima, he is also considered the subduer of the great catfish Namazu, a creature the size of the entire chain of islands whose thrashing underneath them causes earthquakes; if he were not vigilantly on hand to pin the fish down with enormous stones and sometimes bang it in the head a little bit, its struggles to get out from under the islands would destroy the entire country, and even the earthquakes that happen from time to time now are enormously lessened by his efforts to keep the fish pinned. He's also considered a thunder deity, probably because his name lends itself to that reading, although he usually isn't considered the preeminent one with Susano-o and Raijin running around being more prominent.

Takemikazuchi also has some notoriety as a patron of martial arts, especially sumo and aikido, and he often has small shrines in dojos and training studios and receives especial notice when athletic competitions and exhibitions are going on. Given that he won the earth for the heavenly gods through the invention of a sport and the use of unarmed martial fighting techniques, his association with the disciplines certainly makes sense!

Like many of the other Japanese heavenly deities, he isn't particularly "active" in the sense of having ongoing and colorful tales; he has a job to do and he does it, and he established his importance early on in the Kojiki tales and has been comfortably considered a major god ever since. Artwork of him isn't as common as it might be of deities like Amaterasu or Inari, but he's still out there, fighting the good fish-nemesis fight.

Sunday, October 22, 2017

Spoilers: Artwork!

Question: Hey guys! As a spoiler, could you maybe post some art from the book, or the cover? We only really got the 4 backgrounds and a couple of the overworlds depictions, and they're gorgeous. Might we get some other spoiler?

All right, some art coming at you!

There are a lot of art styles going on in the HJ book. We've recently posted a spoiler of one of the cosmology maps, which are the gorgeous work of one artist; but we have a fantastic art team of at least six other artists, providing various amazing pieces for us, and I'm glad to share a bit of those!

First up, here's one of the completed god portraits: the Greek god Hephaestos, patron of smiths and craftspeople and lord of the forge.

We've seen a spoiler of a completed god portrait before, but it's been a while, and since we have so many of these and they're so great, here's one more! Sam and Steph Braithwaite, the artists, are also contributing to other scenes elsewhere in the book, but their portrait work is stunning and always worth enjoying.

But since we've seen gods before, how about we see some Heroes - the people we're all here to talk about?

This is Padma Billingsworth, a young college student from London called by Lakshmi to become a Hero in her service. She's one of the sample NPCs, so you'll see a larger write-up and stats for her in the book; she's an example of a brand new Hero, just starting out to make her mark in the world. (For those curious, she is a Rebel/Scholar, dedicated to trying to help humanitarian causes and learn everything she can.)

This, on the other hand, is a Hero who is well-established and already wielding supernatural power with ease. This dude isn't a sample NPC - rather, he's artwork for elsewhere in the book, where we want to illustrate an Awesome Hero being Awesomely Heroic (a job he completes with ease!).

And here's something completely different, since we had a question in the comments recently about world-building: part of the HJ world map depicting various religions' regions of origin and greatest influence.

Note that the key is cropped off this map (for future reveals and also possible tweaking), but these are areas of origin and major influence (not the only areas these religions are practiced - there are maps for that, too!), and that the labels there represent large groups of related religions and are not representative of a single "religion" covering that whole area. More details await in the final!

In addition to the excellent artwork (and graphic design - the map is a joint project between our Graphic Designer, Royce Piels, and Art Director, Alex Preston-Bosch)) above, there will also be traditional art showcased in the book; ancient depictions of gods, heroes, and adventures from each culture represented by a pantheon and probably some others will also be present, adding some of the old-time imagery of each pantheon to the awesome modern art as well.

That's all for today, except for our fervent and undying love and appreciation for the artists who make it all possible!

Wednesday, October 18, 2017

Mythology Talk: Nymphs, Naiads, Nereids

Question: I'm starting to get into Greek mythology and I has wondering if you could do an article on how nymphs went from "divine protectors of the forests and rivers" to "OMG Beautiful Nymphs" in bad pop culture.

Sure, although there are a lot of layers going on with nymphs in both Greek mythology and popular culture!

One of the Aurae (breeze nymphs)

"Nymphai" is basically a catch-all term in Greek mythology for lesser nature spirits, all female, who are associated with various natural features and places. There are tons of more specific categories within the nymphai; dryades (lowland tree spirits), oreiades (mountain spirits), naiades (river and lake spirits), nereides (ocean spirits) and are all broad categories of nymphs. And then those specify down as well - a single naiad might be more specifically a heleaionad (a marsh spirit), a krenaiad (a fountain spirit), a limnad (a lake spirit), a pegaiad (a spring spirit), or a potamaiad (a river or stream spirit). And then those nymphai would be even more specific, because they were generally tied to a specific location as its inhabiter, so a single pegaiad not only is associated exclusively with springs, but with one spring, which would be her home and domain. There are some classes of nymphai that aren't tied to a specific location - the Maenides, Dionysos' handmaidens, are an obvious choices, as well as the nymphai that accompany Artemis on her hunts and the nymphai of the underworld or the stars that sometimes leave their home bases and travel in myth.

Local nymphai were generally considered to be worthy of respect and best not annoyed; while they weren't feared the way major gods were, it's just good sense not to piss off the nymph who lives in the local spring you get your water from, lest the water dry up or be undrinkable or bad things happen to you when you visit over there every day. Many nymphai were also considered to be related to the greater gods, so you also didn't want to wreck their home bases or aggravate them personally for fear they might have important relatives; for example, all of the Nereids were considered the daughters of Nereos, god of the Aegean Sea, and handmaidens to Poseidon, so bothering them was not a good idea unless you wanted to risk sea monster problems on a grand scale. Most of this plays into the Ancient Greek idea that humanity needs to be careful to interact with the divine in a respectful way lest they fall prey to the sin of hubris and be punished; casually disrespecting or defacing a tree might in turn anger a dryad associated with it, which might in turn result in small local problems (no more useful growth in the area of that tree, dangerous accidents around it) or much bigger ones (the dryad's uncle, Ares, takes personal exception to your harassment of his niece and about the only good news is that you really don't have to worry about whether you're going to need to wear a helmet to harvest apples anymore). Every tree might or might not have a dryad, every hill an oread, every small stream a naiad, and so human beings needed to respect nature and its useful features even while they used them, or face the consequences.

The nereid Kymothea offering hospitality to Achilles

So how do we get to pop culture depictions of nymphs as buxom, sex-obsessed bubbleheads who spend all day frolicking in fields and banging every eligible dude who comes their way? Sadly, the answer is pretty much just old-fashioned garden-variety (ha) sexism, by way of nineteenth century European revisionism.

Nymphai, as we said up above, are all exclusively female; in fact, most lesser deities and spirits in Greek mythology are considered female, even with the occasional orders of male spirits like the satyroi or the oneroi representing more masculine types of divine power and the occasional orders of spirits that aren't marked by gender or are considered fluid. Because they're divine, but not too divine, they're also convenient figures as parents or love interests in myth, so there are quite a few stories in which they are the parents of heroes, or have extramarital affairs with the major gods in order to give birth to minor deities who feature in other stories; for example, Thetis, leader of the nereides, is the mother of Achilles and a massive temptation to Zeus, and there are plenty of stories of nymphs being pursued by the gods (who don't always catch them; just look at Minthe, turned into a plant by Persephone to prevent Hades from catching her, or Daphne, who transformed herself rather than fall prey to Apollo).

Now, in the eighteenth century, northern Europe ran full-tilt into the Enlightenment, which involved a lot of philosophical change and study that is too much to go into here, but it also carried on the tradition started during the Renaissance of Europeans getting very interested in classical mythology. It was extremely in vogue to learn ancient Greek mythology, read the ancient Greek philosophers, and discuss how modern Europeans were clearly the spiritual and cultural inheritors of ancient Greece. Everyone wanted to claim how modern Europeans were the rightful heirs of all the brilliant art and incredible engineering and advancements of ancient Greece, and therefore tons of new writing and art happened; this is where we get all those paintings of ancient Greek mythological scenes starring whomever the painter's current clearly not Greek patron was, and where we get all those retold-for-later-audiences versions of myths, often with very weird additions based on whether or not the myth's Greek moral needed to be converted into a British or German or French one. We still deal with a lot of mythological study being based on writing from this time period, 18th-19th century, and as a result having a lot of weird biases baked into it.

Water Nymph, Gaston Brussiere, 1899

And that's where the perception of the nymphai comes into play. To European scholars of the time, the nymphai read as simultaneously laudable and scandalous. They represented innocence and goodness by being pastoral representatives of the natural world (pastoral representations of the natural world were VERY in; everybody was about getting back to nature and throwing off the shackles of modern man's ethics and progress because the Industrial Revolution was super gross and stressful, etc.), and therefore they were often the subject of poetry and art that depicted them as carefree, beautiful beings who romped about in nature, and who had a lot of sex because that was what natural creatures like animals did (it didn't hurt that they were often associated with the satyroi, who were already depicted with tails or other animal characteristics). In these cases, depicting nymphai as being very sexual was a way of illustrating them as just another part of nature, where sex was a normal thing that happened all the time and was free of human moral issues surrounding it.

But, on the other hand, the nymphai were also representatives of licentiousness and wanton feminine wiles and general Bad Things to the same writers. As mothers of various heroes, lovers of various gods, and sometimes appearing in explicitly sexual roles (like the Maenads, for example), they were also representatives of dangerous feminine sexuality - constantly naked (though ironically this is only in explicitly pornographic ancient Greek art; in regular art, nymphai were usually depicted fully clothed), super alluring, having sex with people they weren't married to (or even in defiance of their partners' legitimate marriages!), and being pursued by even more males that clearly wanted to have sex with them, the subtext there being that this was clearly the fault of their lady-wiles (a moment of silence for poor Apollo/Zeus/Hades/Poseidon/everyone else on the list who was clearly an innocent victim of Overwhelming Lady-Wiles). As a result, they were also easy targets for moralizing about inappropriate sexiness, and the perception of them as unreasonably sexy and without morals led to the word "nymph" being associated with the concept of a lascivious woman, and eventually to being cemented by the invention of the term "nymphomania" in the late eighteenth century to describe a woman who suffered from clinical hypersexuality (although let's be real, many women at the time who were diagnosed with the disorder were really just being diagnosed with "wants to have sex even though not married", "wants to have sex even though barren so what's the point", "wants to have sex more than husband and he's weirded out about it", or "had sex with someone OTHER than husband, to the asylum").

Nymphes et Satyres, William-Adolphe Bouguereau, 1873

Even though the field of psychology doesn't use the term nymphomania anymore (or satyriasis, which was the same diagnosis for men), "nymphomaniac" survived as a colloquial term for women who have or want too much sex, and modern pop culture tends to represent the nymphai, when they occasionally appear, as a combination of those two old eighteenth- and nineteenth-century concepts. Add "childlike innocent in nature" to "hypersexualized woman having all the inappropriate sex", and you end up with our stock trope for nymphs: "childlike or extremely stupid woman who will have sex with everyone". The most egregious example of this I can think of is in Piers Anthony's Xanth series, where nymphs are represented as literally silly, empty-headed not-quite-people who want to have sex with every man they see, but you'll see it in other places, too, with the recurring image of a nymph as a beautiful, none-too-bright-or-important lesser spirit who is just around to amuse the audience or occasionally represent A Dangerous Temptation to a hero.

Personally, I'd love to see more modern depictions of the nymphai in their original guise, as the representatives of the natural world and the small powers that made up the first level of interaction between humanity and the much loftier, more distant gods. Respect your local epimeliades, y'all - without them, we wouldn't have all this apple cider we're enjoying this season!

Saturday, October 14, 2017

Mechanics Talk: Mythic Technology

Question: How does technology work in Hero's Journey? What do scientist characters do?

Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic. - Arthur C. Clarke

Technology versus magic is weirdly split into two opposing conversations when we talk about game design, and storytelling in general. We distinguish between fantasy and science fiction by saying that one is about magic and spiritualism and the unexplainable, and the other is about science and architecture and the ingenuity of humanity; we say fantasy is characterized by gods and sorcerers and mythical creatures, and science fiction is characterized by aliens and robots and mutated human beings. We divide up fantasy and magic and label it "old" - things humanity believed in before we knew better enough to know they were impossible - and science fiction and technology as "new" - things humanity believes in that are fantastic but theoretically possible. Games and fiction are divided pretty strongly along these lines, so that a setting generally involves one but not the other as the core of their world (although not always, of course - looking at you, Shadowrun.)

Anyway, this becomes a major question for a game like Hero's Journey. In HJ, the characters live in the modern world - a world full of technology and all of human advancement and invention - but they are affected by and tap into the ancient powers of divine magic. They're straddling the line, which begs the question of how magic and technology interact, and what the game does to allow characters to use one or both (or not, as the case may be).

Interestingly, while we tend to think of mythology as firmly in the realm if Old/Magic/Fantasy, that isn't necessarily so. In modern times, we associate things like "science" and "technology" with what we think of as the cutting edge now: computers, virology, space travel, robotics, genetics, everything that describes what humanity is trying to learn new things about and develop new powers and solutions to. Those things are technology, of course, but really any new method or invention that changes life for people qualifies as technology; at one point in human history, chariots and bows and arrows were new and exciting technology, and so was the invention and mass use of papyrus or parchment or vellum or paper, and so was mining and alloying new metals and types of precious stones, and so was the invention of everyday tools like fishing nets, hammers, wheels, sails. Those things were as huge and society-changing as inventing tablet computers or developing drugs that cure malaria were in more modern times; technology didn't just start in the 1980s, and ancient people were very aware of and interested in scientific and technological advances. And that means that they had deities who were in charge of those things - we don't have to come up with a way to reconcile magical ancient gods with technology, because there are and always have been magical ancient gods of technology.

I included that Arthur C. Clarke quote above because the distinction between "magic" and "technology" is a pretty recent one, culturally speaking. You might notice that gods who are strongly associated with technology are often considered sorcerers or mysterious gods of arcane intellect; this is because, to the average layperson (in any age, not just the ancient ones), super science and advanced technology are basically the same thing as magic. Something incredible suddenly happens or is made possible, and the explanation is "complicated words that may or may not be made up and you don't understand them", so really, what's the difference between speaking the words of a spell in an occult tongue and describing a chemical formula in impenetrable technical terms? In either case, magic words nobody but the user understands made something seemingly impossible happen. It's not surprising that ancient people often viewed those who were capable of amazing technology or new scientific feats as magicians; it's not even really different now, except for the terminology. I understand in theory that there is an explanation for how my cell phone works, but the actual explanation is as much a mystery to me as if it involved summoning a demon and binding him with words of power, really. I know there are people in the world who do understand these things and in fact make them happen, but in another time and place, I very well might have called those people wizards. There's no functional difference.

(This isn't confined to science, by the way; many cultures have also considered people who knew how to read and write to be magicians - they can somehow capture and store words and language, things that don't even have form, and save them for later! they can look at meaningless random markings and somehow pull wisdom out of them! - as well as people with skills in medicine and herbs - they went into the dark forest, came back with leaves that look exactly the same as every other leaf, but now little Aisling has miraculously recovered from a killing fever and no one else can possibly figure out how! We're just talking about scientific technologies and inventions at the moment, but the phenomenon of considering impressive skills to be magic is a common one worldwide throughout history.)

So, in HJ, what constitutes "technology" and what constitutes "magic", and how do you use both? As you can see above, the lines are not clear-cut and a lot depends on what exactly you're doing. Stats are used for doing, not passively being, so there are not necessarily singular stats for all these things.

In a broad sense, manipulating technology - using computers or machines - tends to fall under Streetwise, one of the Trickster Talents. Tricksters are the civilization masters; they are the ones who know how to navigate and manipulate cities, inventions, and systems the way the Hunters know how to do the same thing out in nature, so they're the ones who know what buttons to push and what levers to pull to make things work the way the humans who designed them clearly intended them to. Sages can certainly get in on the action with their Knowledge Talent, which might be called upon to try to understand mechanical workings of technological things or to figure out the theory or science behind something; sometimes the Sage knows how something is supposed to work, even if they don't have the hands-on ability or experience of doing it, or the Trickster knows what to do to get it to work but couldn't explain the theory behind it if you called them on it. And then, of course, there are the Creators; they're the ones who use their Art Talent to actually build new things, from throwing pottery to delicately putting together a nanochip, and whether or not they have the other stats determines whether they're genius inventors who know exactly how to theorize and use this thing, or talented manufacturers who can design and build something like pros but are not the right person to have take it out into the field later.

Do you have to do those things? No, and you can use those same stats to do completely different, "non-technological" things, too. Technology is a facet of life and adventure that can come up in a lot of different contexts, but it's not required for any Hero (much as, hopefully, nothing else really is other than the basics of "stay alive"). But these are just naked rolls; what about fancy stuff, like building explosives, or coming up with the cure for cancer, or inventing a new kind of spaceship? How does a Hero do those?

In those cases, you need more than a naked roll; invention and creation of things beyond normal everyday technology require Blessings. We've talked a little before about how Blessings aren't necessarily "magic"; rather, they represent skills and abilities that normal people who aren't specialists or Heroes don't have. Some of them are magical, in that they involve doing things that are normally impossible by the laws of physics, but some of them are just specialized skills that normal people don't have, and others are advantages that a Hero has to represent their stronger skill or innate ability in a particular area. The average person can't cobble together an explosive without going out and learning how and being a decently steady hand at doing so; likewise, if your Hero wants to make explosives, they need to have the appropriate Blessing to do so. Those Blessings exist, so just like your Hero needs Blessings to cast magical spells, they also need Blessings to perform feats of super science. Remember up above how science and magic are, in a storytelling context, often functionally identical? That's what's happening here; Blessings can be either or both, and Heroes are free to use them with whatever kind of flavor best fits them.

(This is also a balancing tool; it helps to keep different Creators from being identical when they can invest in different Blessings that result in different skillsets, and of course making sure that certain Blessings are required for particularly powerful tools and abilities helps prevent characters from being overpowered cheesemonkeys who render all other characters and methods unimportant. If anyone can just create instant flesh-eating airborne chemical agents or homemade pipe bombs that destroy all enemies with normal, no-resource-investment rolls, they're just going to literally solve all problems with chemicals and explosives because it's free and easy and real useful not to have to engage. Of course, you still can make building explosives your primary method of combat if you want to - go on with your bad anarcho-terrorist self! - but you'll have to put time, effort, and resource expenditure into it to do so, just like the Warrior has to for their murdering skills or the other non-Warrior Talents that have combat abilities have to pay for their mayhem powers.)

So, at the end of the day, the answer to how technology works in Hero's Journey is basically the same as how everything else works; there are multiple Talents that are rolled for various scientific and technological pursuits, and particularly impressive or difficult feats probably involve Blessings, just as they would for any concept. Technology and magic aren't separate from each other in more than interpretation in many cases; your Hero can use either or both, all based on what they want to invest their time and skill into.

Wednesday, October 11, 2017

Mythology Talk: The Cradle of Civilization

Question: Could you talk about the Mesopotamian creation myth?

The key question here is, of course: which one?

"Mesopotamian mythology" is really an umbrella term for the ancient religions of the cradle of civilization (centered mostly in what is now Iraq). The largest of these are the Sumerian civilization, which was centered on the city of Sumer (4500-1900 BCE); then the Akkadian Empire, which focused on Akkad (2334-2154 BCE); then the Assyrian Empire with its center in Assur (2200-605 BCE); and finally the Babylonian Empire, based in famous Babylon (1895-619 BCE). As you can see, there's lots of overlap in time - Sumer continued to be relevant for the entire existence of the Akkadian Empire and into the beginning of the Assyrian and Babylonian Empires, and the Assyrian Empire arose while Akkad was still a power and also coexisted with Babylon for several centuries.

And also, as we can see, they're all on top of each other geographically as well. So it's no wonder they have religious features in common - or rather, they all very nearly share the same religion, each adding their own features, which is why we usually talk about them all together. There isn't a ton of difference between Akkadian mythology and Babylonian mythology, so in the interests of not nitpicking very tiny things like who wears a fish symbol where, we just talk about it all in one big bowl of Mesopotamian Myths.

But because there were multiple civilizations involved, with multiple goals, over a very long period of time (remember those Egyptians we just talked about last week being so long-lived? they've only got these folks by about 500 years!), there are inevitably differences. So the Sumerian creation myth is not quite identical to the later ones. So let's talk about what is the same, and then where the differences lie!

The Mesopotamian creation myth goes generally like this: in the beginning of the universe, there were only two beings, who were Tiamat, the feminine principle of salt water, and Apsu/Abzu, the masculine principle of fresh water. The two of them gave birth to the first gods, the twins Lahmu and Lahamu, who were the silt of the primordial waters, and they gave birth to Anshar, the horizon of heaven, and Kishar, the horizon of earth. They gave birth to Anu, the great god of the heavens, and Ki, the goddess of the earth, and from the two of them were born all the other gods: Enlil and Enki/Ea, who were the fathers of Ninurta and Nergal and Nanna/Sin and Marduk, who were the parents of Utu/Shamash, Ereshkigal, Innana/Ishtar, and so on and so forth. Enlil was born first, and as the god of air and sky separated his parents to allow space for all the other gods and humanity to live between them (if that sounds familiar, it's because Egypt has the same myth of Geb and Nut separated by their father Shu, and it's hard to guess, given how ancient both pantheons are, which one borrowed it from the other!).

Once all the gods have been created, however, their dancing and shouting and general noise-making becomes so loud that it begins to disturb Tiamat and Apsu, the ancient progenitors, who find the noise aggravating and intrusive after an eternity of existing silently alongside one another. Tiamat puts up with the noise even thought she doesn't like it because she is the mother of all of them and considers it part of her duty to put up with their youthful hijinks, but eventually Apsu can't take the noise anymore and tells her that he wants to destroy them and be done with it. They argue some, with Apsu almost swayed by Tiamat's argument that they can't destroy their own children, until his servant Mummu (the god of stasis and peace) tells him that he will never sleep again if he doesn't get rid of the gods, and Apsu agrees and decides to clean house.

The gods get word that their ancient sire is planning to do away with them and understandably start panicking, until Enki/Ea, creative trickster god of the waters, tells them he will handle the situation, and creates a complex spell that puts Apsu to sleep. Since sleeping was pretty much what Apsu wanted in the first place, the story could have ended here, but that's not how gods usually solve their problems; Enki kills Apsu while he sleeps, takes his symbols and tools for himself, and establishes his new home within the fresh water that Apsu once controlled, making himself the new god of waters. (On a symbolic level, this represents the gods taking control of fresh water, an important and necessary part of life, away from the ancient primordial powers for their own use and eventually humanity's. Apsu was not a god who could be called upon by humanity for help with life-giving water, being too ancient and remote, but Enki is.)

Unfortunately for everyone, this act of killing the patriarch of the gods did not go over well with the entire cosmos. Tiamat was shocked and horrified by the loss of her husband, killed by the very children she had argued with him not to act against, and various of the other gods taunted her, telling her that it was her own fault for not standing with her husband when he needed her and further scorning her, saying that the sea is too violent now that she is upset and she was never a good mother to them, either, since it's bothering them. Grieving and infuriated by the accusation that she did not love her husband or her descendants, Tiamat eventually decides to declare war on them, and begins to give birth to a whole new generation of monsters and gods on her (symbolically, these are hideous and dangerous monsters because she's having them all by herself; they are solely born out of the endless depths of the ocean, instead of from the mingling of the salt water with Apsu's fresh water that made the gods). She chooses one of the new gods, the noble Kingu, and makes him her new husband, giving him the Tablet of Destinies to show him as the legitimate ruler given power by her as the eldest deity and sending him out to lead the army against the gods who betrayed her.

Enki hears about this and gets very worried about the situation, and they start by trying to send out envoys to convince Tiamat not to murder them all.
Enki goes himself first, but is too frightened of her and comes back; then Anu, his father, who as the father of all the active gods has the authority to tell her to back off with all of them behind him, but she is not impressed and strikes him, causing him to flee. Out of ideas, the gods call an assembly of all their number to try to figure out what to do, but nobody else wants to or could be powerful enough to challenge Tiamat or Kingu, until finally Marduk, Enki's young son, is chosen for his martial prowess and told to go handle the situation. Marduk agrees, but only if the gods will give him full authority as his their ruler if he succeeds, which is probably a pretty easy thing to promise given that it won't matter in the very likely case that he fails like everyone else. They call up Lahmu and Lahamu, Tiamat's and Apsu's eldest children, to legitimize the transfer of power to Marduk, and then send him out with the power of all the gods behind him to try to save the day.

Once Marduk arrives, he's so majestic and terrifying with the powers of all the gods on his side that Tiamat's army is overwhelmed and doesn't want to fight him, and even Kingu is intimidated and unsure of how to proceed; only Tiamat is not afraid of Marduk. He accuses her of being a terrible mother who has married Kingu when he doesn't deserve it and is plotting against her children, and they close in single combat while the rest of the army scatters. Eventually Marduk wins by pouring all the winds of the world into Tiamat's open mouth so that she splits open and then cutting out her heart; once he has done so, he captures the rest of the army and takes them prisoner, and takes the Tablet of Destinies from Kingu in order to further legitimize his own rule. He then creates the rest of the world out of the pieces of Tiamat's body; half of her body fashions the heavens, while the other half makes up the earth. Her blood is converted into rain, her skull into earth, her breasts into mountains (punctured so that their milk runs out as rivers), her vulva into the support for the sky, her tail into the Milky Way, and both of her eyes are punctured to become the sources of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Marduk goes home to become the uncontested king of the gods, and humanity is eventually invented by the mother goddess Ninhursag/Nintu to populate the newly created world.

So that's the general tale, one full of heartbreak and patricide and people making terrible decisions. Scholars have long pointed out that it probably influenced a lot of other nearby mythologies - I already mentioned the analogue with Geb and Nut above, and the pattern of sons superseding their fathers' rule, and their mothers' violent reaction, is one that appears even more violently in Greek mythology. But as mentioned above, there are a lot of changes depending on which period of the empire you're in and who's in charge!

For example, the Sumerian version of the myth, the earliest one, does not contain the whole war between the gods and their parents; it describes Nammu, a primordial deity of the waters, who gives birth alone to Anu and Ki, who then create the gods. Nammu doesn't appear in Assyrian and Babylonian versions of the myth, since she's been completely replaced by Tiamat, but has a cameo in Akkadian mythology as the being called upon by Enki to create humankind. The Akkadian version of the story adds Tiamat and Apsu as the original creators and sets in place the chain of descent from them the Lahmu and Lahamu, then to Anshar and Kishar, then to Anu and Ki, and introduces the story of the conflict between the gods and their progenitors, though the main actors are Enlil and Ea (Enki). The Assyrians brought their personal favorite god, Assur/Ashur, a solar god who was the one they considered to have fought and defeated Tiamat, a story that persisted in Assyrian-dominated areas of the empire until the rise of Babylon (Ashur was identified with Anshar, Anu's father, in some areas due to the similar names and also because it made him even more important if you put him so high in the genealogy!). And, finally, the Babylonian emperor Hammurabi who rolled in around the eighteenth century BCE was a personal devotee of Marduk, and he instigated an empire-wide initiative to rewrite a new national version of the creation story, this time with Marduk as defeater of Tiamat and supreme ruler over all the gods.

This is interesting in Hero's Journey, of course - there are most likely multiple sects within the Mesopotamian religion, and while Marduk as the main dude is probably the most common and visible one, there are probably splinter sects that continue to consider Enki or Ashur or various other deities and stories the important ones, and relegate Marduk to side importance. Just as there are huge numbers of splinter sects in modern world religions today, there is probably a wealth of hotly debated difference between different Mesopotamian denominations!

Monday, October 9, 2017

Playtest Characters: Teams Basilisk & Python

Now that y'all have gotten to see the playtest pages if you want to, here's a little closer look at the playtest characters! They're brand-new mortal Heroes who have only played a session or two, so we anticipate that they'll branch out in many directions as they grow.

(Yes, according to John, the team names have Relevance to the Plot, but since the players don't know that yet, you'll have to speculate on your own.)

Team Basilisk: Agent, Soldier, and Chef

Character #1: Jaime Dienas, called by Demeter

Jaime is a chef at a local Cuban restaurant, which he built up himself and runs in order to support his family and carve out a little space in the thriving multicultural landscape of Miami. The son of aging immigrants, he does his best to take care of his parents while growing his business, dreaming one day of being financially solvent enough not to have to worry about taking care of everyone (and of one day not having to worry about his parents being deported if something goes wrong, an issue that is becoming more worrisome by the day). He was a farmer originally, and his intimate familiarity with the way food is grown and harvests adds to his ability to create food that is seldom appreciated as well as it deserves.

He became a Hero when his divine patron Demeter arrived at his restaurant and sampled his food, revealing herself only after she had decided that he was worthy of being encouraged. After she impressed upon him the need to choose local ingredients and be mindful of what people had to do to grow and harvest them before he received them, she sent him into the world to act in her name, bringing comfort and life in a new age that she hinted might need it more than ever before.

Jaime has so far been excellent at creating sustenance and art in the kitchen (Vision), wrangling and working with his employees as a team (Diplomacy), and making sure to encourage his companions to be cautious and look back over decisions before running headlong into anything.

Character #2: Neel Sharma, called by Ganesha

Neel is an ICE agent, a government worker who specializes in investigating, discovering, and deporting illegal immigrants and aliens on United States soil; for years, he did his job without qualms until the new restrictions came into play and he found his own parents were being targeted for deportation when their paperwork expired and they were not allowed to reapply. After helping them illegally evade notice, he began to have moral questions about his job, wondering how many other families he had torn apart who were no danger to anyone, and these days has begun subtly working against the system from the inside, hoping to make a difference without getting caught. His cover job is as a bartender at a local club, where he generally feels less conflicted about his life.

He fell abruptly into the life of a Hero when Ganesha, remover of obstacles and granter of good fortune, appeared to him one day and in no uncertain terms made it clear that he did not approve of a career spent trying to bar people from citizenship and send them back into poverty and danger. After feeling judged and extremely wanting, Neel was intimidated into feeling more than ever before that he needs to effect change - even if it costs him everything he has.

Neel has been great at projecting carefully cultivated faces to the world (Empathy), scouting out strange situations for information about the political and crime landscape (Streetwise), and being deeply suspicious of everyone and everything until proven otherwise.

Character #3: Nicholas Buchanan, called by Tyr

Nicholas (Nick) was a soldier for most of his adult life, serving in Afghanistan in capacities redacted from most files until he lost a leg in the line of duty and was honorably discharged to find some other way to make his way in the world. Since his talents mostly lie in physical and military areas, he has made quite a small business out of bodyguarding and protection gigs for local celebrities and businessmen. Of course, not all these businessmen are particularly legitimate, and his side business of helping smuggle people in and out of the city without asking where they came from or why is probably not strictly on the up and up, either... but when life gives you lemons, sometimes you have to make lemonade with an unorthodox luxury goods smuggling operation.

He became a Hero not long ago when the sudden appearance of a boat full of apparently human-intelligent canines interrupted his bodyguard patrol around an eclipse party and Tyr, in the larger-than-life flesh, appeared out of nowhere to encourage him to help him fight them off and demand that he decide to push his boundaries. He was informed that this was only the tip of the weirdness iceberg, advised to work on staying in shape, and then left on a boat without little more idea about what was going on than he started with.

Nick brings skills to the table including action sports on land and sea (Athleticism), the ability to shoot enemies with artillery (Weaponry), and very motivational impatience to get up and go deal with things already.

Team Python: Two Waitresses and a Barista

Character #1: Helena Aguado, called by Dionysos

Helena is a barista at a local coffee shop, but that's just her Clark Kent cover. When she's not working, she's a crusader for justice, specifically focusing on conservation and environmental concerns. Humanity is killing the planet and she is determined to slow or stop that process: she wants to save the whales, prevent rainforest logging, and she will go to Washington and punch a senator in the face with brass knuckles that read CLIMATE CHANGE IS REAL if she has to. She's very passionate and intense, so much so that her relationships tend to be short and explosive. She wants to make a change in the world, for the better, but although she knows what's wrong, she isn't sure exactly what to do yet; she's looking for a direction and a way to make an impact.

She recently became a Hero when Dionysos called her out to a nightclub, got her extremely drunk, and explained that the world was about to change and she would have the power to make a real impact on that change - exactly what she wanted to hear. She doesn't know what all the babble about satyrs and morality and so on really means, but she knows this: he was looking for someone with the passion and power to go to the limit to make a difference, and she's exactly the right person for the job.

So far, Helena has been a superstar when it comes to searching for clues (Tracking), demanding people pay attention (Persuasion), and providing a refreshing and frank voice of reason when people get too emotional. Not that she isn't emotional, too, but she always keeps her eyes on the prize.

Character #2: Islande Chery, called by Hathor

Islande (Issy) works two jobs, one as a waitress at a Haitian restaurant and one as a personal assistant (read: errand-runner) to an international businessman and landlord, and between the two just manages to make ends meet. Born in Haiti but relocated to Miami with her family as refugees from the 2010 earthquake, she is a sweet-natured and happy person, just trying to make sure her family, roommates, friends, and everyone else are all happy and comfortable at the end of each day. She often shoulders a little extra financial burden or does extra chores or errands, but she never minds as long as it brings a smile to someone else's face. She hasn't yet found a real driving passion or ambition in life; for her, it's enough right now just to be happy in little ways while she learns more about where life will take her.

She became a Hero when Hathor in all her goddess glory appeared to tell her that she was needed to be a moral compass for Heroes with dangerous and driving jobs, destined to do big things (it doesn't hurt that those Heroes are also her friends!). She also heard a declaration that she would help restore the monarchy of Haiti - not the French monarchy of its colonial days, but the short-lived monarchy that replaced the invaders after the country overthrew them - but she doesn't yet know enough about either history or the divine to have the faintest clue what she's supposed to do about all that.

So far, Issy has been excellent at reading peoples' moods and needs (Empathy), physically toting her friends around when necessary (Brawn), and coming up with compromises for her two strong-willed and passionate friends (who can use a good mediator!).

Character #3: Valencia Rosales, called by Zeus

Valencia is technically a waitress, but that's just what she does now and then in between being fabulous. The daughter of a rather notorious Cuban crime boss (currently in jail for administrative misbehavior, which is sad but not forever), she is the definition of a carefree party girl: she loves boys, pretty clothes, expensive gifts, and fun days and nights at beaches and clubs. She's an Instagram model and a burgeoning artist of about fifteen different kinds, and she's all about finding excitement, happiness, and people to spoil her, getting fun out of every bit of her life she can. She's sure her life will burst wide open any minute when her obvious talents bring her fame, and she works hard to get noticed by photographers and talent scouts now that she has to support herself without her father's influence.

She found her way to becoming a Hero when a very sexy gentleman by the name of Zeus invited her out to a club, gave her jewelry, and then was really weird about not making out with her while loudly declaring that she had to scream her devotion to the city and be ready to be a powerful new force for change in the world. She wasn't really clear on what that meant or why he was being so weird, but apparently it's a thing that's happening now.

Valencia has so far been instrumental in convincing people to let her go places and do what she wants (Persuasion), being distractingly hot at strategic moments (Beauty), and reminding everyone that vague divine mandates are all well and good, but no one should lose sight of the fact that their own wellbeing is pretty important, too.

In the future, we expect one more character in each of these groups, as well as a third team (Team Elk is waiting to represent!), but they'll have to be saved for another post when they finish firming up and get started. Hopefully they give you a little more insight into the world of the very newly minted divine!

Sunday, October 8, 2017

Check Out These Playtests!

Welcome, we're back!

Us showing up late to this update from our rad jam session

What's Up With Writing

All the Sphere Blessings are finally finished - Life and Death have been kicked into submission. Anne also added some explanatory sidebars and concept pieces to help make everything pull together. She's now working on re-designing how Blessings are written out for maximum clarity and ease of use. (And also maximum space saving. There's a lot of stuff in this book.)

Next up we're going over Sphere Augments and the Devotionals. Anne keeps saying "make sure everything that needs testing is done before your stupid math" because she hates tuning and durability balance.

Join us in pointing and laughing at a new crop of bad player decisions

What's Up With Playtesting

We're still working on whether or not we get a playtesting hub on the website. (There are continuing technical difficulties which you all might have seen since the site goes up and down a lot.) But in the meantime the playtests are up and here's all you need to take a peek at them.

The games are being played over on Roll20.net, each with their own page. Currently, you can look there to see recaps of the game sessions, character sheets and bios, and any other updates that we end up posting there.

Hero's Journey: Magic City (Team Basilisk)
Hero's Journey: Magic City (Team Python)

If you want to see the placement for the Heroes on the Web of Fate and Sphere trees, you can peek at those, too! (Which, by the way, is #Spoilers for what's on those webs - the Sphere trees we have posted don't have their Blessings labeled, but the Talent Web and Devotionals do.) Check those out here:

Magic City Web of Fate Nodes
Magic City Sphere Nodes
Magic City Devotional Nodes

You can also follow the characters with their Twitter handles (although they're also in the feed on the HJ website and here on the blog, so you can see them there, too). @beachybaby_95 (Valencia Rosales, called by Zeus), @helenaaaahguado (Helena Aguado, called by Dionysos), @IslandeChery (Islande Chery, called by Hathor), and @NeelSharma1985 (Neel Sharma, called by Ganesha). The other players are being lazy and haven't made theirs yet, but we'll post them when they do and also put them in the feed.

The third game is still creating characters and scheduling, so they're not online yet. We'll add them in later when they start rolling.

Live footage of the bedroom flood of 2017

The Personal Stuff

We lived through the hurricane and most of the recovery is done. Among other things, we lost power and water, couldn't use cell phones or the internet for a while, our bedroom flooded and our door blew off like six damn times, but we were lucky that there wasn't anything worse. After the putting the door back and the drying the house and the dealing with the bugs and the finally being able to buy groceries again, we're back to normal, pretty much. Thanks for all your good wishes and we hope everyone else in the hurricane path is also recovering well.

Anne has to be doctorized five or six times this month so she might not be around as much as usual, but as usual hopefully that means that we know more and things are better in the future. Wave at her from the comments on her queued posts!

Like this scourge of the underworld, we're tired now. Time for underworld naps.

See you next time!

Saturday, October 7, 2017

Spoilers: Sphere Blessings!

Hey, y'all! It's time for spoilers!

Our extremely formal and scientifically rigorous Twitter poll came out with "Big Iconic Blessings" winning as the most asked-for category of Sphere Blessings, although not by much. So we'll do a few of those today!

What we mean by "big iconic Blessings" is that these are the showpieces of the Sphere at Mortal level - what we call the "party pieces" when we're designing them. They're the big, exciting, powerful, emblematic Blessings that Mortal Heroes are probably looking forward to getting most and that you would (hopefully, if we did our job right!) be most excited about using.

Rise and Shine (Sun)
    The Hero calls down some of the awesome power of the sun to awaken people in the morning and restore vivifying energy to them, even in moments of great crisis. Whenever someone is knocked unconscious by fatigue damage, the Hero may use this Blessing to command them to rise back up; when they do, that person immediately heals a number of boxes of both fatigue and lethal damage equal to the Hero’s total dots of Sun, and arises again to continue fighting the good fight.

Thunderbolt (Thunder)
    The Hero with this Blessing can release the formidable electric forces of their own body, inflicting a sudden searing lightning strike on an enemy. They may use this Blessing to strike any being in the same Episode with them, inflicting damage equal to their successes, half of which is dealt as fatigue damage and half as lethal (rounded down). This damage ignores the hapless target’s Defense, but can be mitigated by the Inner Circuit Blessing if they possess it. This Blessing may not be used on inanimate objects or structures.

Transformation (Life)
    A master over the power and form of living things, the Hero may temporarily transform them in moments of great crisis, commuting one creature to another. Whenever an enemy in close combat attempts to attack them, they may use this Blessing; if they successfully overcome their enemy’s resistance, they transform them immediately into an animal (it may be any animal of the Hero’s choice, but must be one that could survive in the current Episode’s environment - for example, they could not turn an enemy into a fish on dry land and then allow them to suffocate). The new creature must be of the same size category as its original form and retains its usual Defense and resistance rolls; it will no longer attack the Hero or anyone else, being overwhelmingly distracted by the disorientation of its sudden transformation. Any clothing or items the transformed enemy was carrying remain on them, folded into the transformation, and reappear exactly as they were once this Blessing’s effects end.
    Once the Hero’s enemy has been transformed, they remain that way until the end of the Episode, unless they suffer damage from any source or are targeted by a power that forces them to make a resistance roll,in which case they immediately revert to their original form (probably with great confusion and aggravation).

Now, of course, these aren't the everyday Blessings a Hero will use all the time, or the ones they get soonest, so here are a couple of examples of middle-of-the-road everyday Blessings, since they were the poll runner-ups, for comparison:

Séance (Death)
    A Hero with such a close connection to the great beyond may speak to the dead, even across enormous gulfs of time and distance. When a Hero uses this Blessing, they may ask any spirit of a dead person a single question that has a yes-or-no or short answer; if they overcome the spirit’s resistance, they are compelled to communicate the answer truthfully to the Hero. Should the Hero fail to overcome the spirit, they refuse to answer the question and the Hero may not contact that specific ghost again during this Chapter (although they can still try others!).
    The Hero must have a body part or object of value belonging to the deceased they wish to contact, or else attempt to call on them from the burial site of their body. In addition, when they use this Blessing, they become able to perceive any ghosts currently present in the Episode with them, although they cannot necessarily pry useful information out of them unless they directly use this Blessing to ask them questions.

Sacred Hearth (Fire)
    The Hero may build a comforting centralized fire, granting comfort, support, and serenity to themself and all their companions when they do. During a Lull Episode, if they create and tend a central hearth, a number of Heroes up to this Hero’s total number of Fire dots may both rest and heal as normal and also perform one action or Blessing that would normally prevent them from doing so; if they choose to forgo resting, they may instead perform two actions or Blessing that normally require an entire Lull Episode. The Hero themself may only perform one Lull-specific action or Blessing, since their second one is occupied with tending the flames.

Wind Whisper (Heavens)
    This Blessing allows Heroes to speak with the voice of the wind, directing it to carry their words to whisper subtly in others’ ears. They may speak or sing any simple message or verse of no more than a single sentence or thought, and cause it to be carried to any being in the same Episode with them, whispered privately to them and only them. Anyone who wishes to overhear the Hero’s message must overcome their roll with a Sight roll; if they fail, they cannot discern the message or even become aware that there was one, not even with alternative methods of communication such as lip-reading.

Wednesday, October 4, 2017

Mythology Talk: Evolving Egyptian Deities

A while ago, we had a request in the comments to talk about Egyptian gods and how they seem to always be changing, evolving, or reappearing with new pieces strapped to their heads and arms without apparent warning to those of us looking back at them from millennia in the future. So let's talk about the complicated world of Egyptian deity syncretism!

Egyptian deities are a lot like German nouns: they're all a thing on their own, but people frequently smush them together to create a new form that is something unique as well. Amun is one deity, and Ra is one deity, and Atum is one deity; and at certain points, people put them together so that they got the new deities Amun-Ra, Atum-Ra, or the ever-popular Amun-Atum-Ra, all of which are distinct on their own but also obviously and identifiably made up of bits of the single gods within them. They gain combined powers and spheres of influence that clearly come from the original combined gods, but also new ones to go with their new deity status; and they're usually shown with combined symbols and attributes as well.

Left to right: Amun-Ra, Amun, Ra, Atum, Atum-Ra

You can see the combinations in their iconography and physical depiction in art; Atum-Ra is shown as Ra's falcon head and sun disk + Atum's royal throne and scepters of rulership, and Amun-Ra is shown as Amun's ram horns and royal collar + Ra's sun disk. And these are of course only a couple of the possible ways those combined gods are depicted in ancient Egyptian art; sometimes Amun-Ra uses Amun's human-like aspect instead of the ram, or Atum-Ra sits in Ra's solar barque, and so on and so forth. And these guys are just one of the biggest and most iconic combinations! Atum, Amun, and Ra are also frequently combined with other deities - Horakty, Min, Osiris, Khnum - and each of those further combinations makes something else new again, even though it retains the qualities of the deities that were attached together.

So... why does this kind of thing keep happening? Why do we have Osiris-Seker as well as Osiris and Seker, and Isis-Sopdet as well as Isis and Sopdet? Why does Egyptian mythology keep creating Frankensteinian deity combinations like Mut-Hathor-Ma'at, and what are they for when they already had the three individual goddesses involved?

There are several answers that add up together, and the first one is just the phenomenal amount of time we're talking about when we discuss the ancient Egyptian religion. We have possibly the longest and best-preserved religion in all of human history in the Egyptians; from the early period through the end of the Greek- and Roman-dominated period, the religion existed and was actively practiced for something like 3500 years. That's almost 70% of all civilized human history. Entire civilizations have been born, risen, flourished, and died without even taking up the majority of the amount of time of the one for whom the Egyptian gods were the masters of the universe. That is an enormous amount of time for a religion to be active, and as you might expect, that means that it changed a lot during that huge period. Politics, governments, social pressures, technology, even the landscape itself changed during that time, and as a result the religious needs of the people changed, and which deities they worshiped, and how, had to change along with them to stay relevant.

(By the way, since in Hero's Journey the Egyptian religion didn't cease to exist during the seventh century, add another fourteen hundred years to that timespan. Heroes of the Egyptian pantheon in this game are representatives of a religion that has existed contiguously in one form or another for almost five thousand years. If you suspected they might have slightly swelled heads about it, well, they would deny this, but they would usually be lying. Bernard Fitzroy X will explain very patiently to you that he's no more important than any other Hero, and the fact that he emblazons the symbol of his pantheon on giant surfaces when casting spells and frequently actively mocks the "young religions" when his Greek companions are trying to do things are just coincidences that have good individual reasons behind them, obviously.)

Left to right: Mut, Mut-Hathor, Hathor

Anyway, some of the combination plate deities in Egyptian mythology are a result of the religion's extreme age; as in most other mythologies, older deities sometimes get replaced by younger ones. New gods with more popularity can overtake the place of older ones, and often those older deities' stories and symbols are just attached to the younger one that is "absorbing" them, creating a hybrid deity that is really more of a combination of one god eating another one's importance than anything else. The combination both lends the younger deity additional significance by identifying them with an already established god and their history, and eases the transition by allowing worshipers of the older deity to transfer over to the younger one through the familiar stories and symbols. This is what happens with some of the older gods of the Egyptian religion, who were extremely important but replaced by a younger generation in their worshipers' eyes; Mut, for example, the mother goddess of creation and nurturing, was incredibly important in about 2000-1600 BCE, and while she never disappeared, she was later eclipsed by younger goddesses, so that Hathor and Isis often became associated with her symbols (particularly the ankh and the vulture crown) and took on many of her roles to bolster their own importance. A more extreme example would be Iah, the ancient moon god, who by the eleventh century BCE had been completely replaced in popular worship by Khonsu, and was generally only remembered as an individual entity when he appeared as a personification of the moon itself in myths about Khonsu or Thoth, who manipulated and carried him as lunar deities themselves.

Another factor in the many syncretized deities of Egypt is the fact that what we think of as "Egypt" today was not, for most of its history, a single unified place with a single unified religious culture. Different dynasties and ethnic groups ruled various areas of Egypt at different times, not to mention that different cities often had their own cult centers, not all of which were at all agreed on what deities were in charge of what or who was most important to the universe as a whole. This is why, incidentally, there are so many conflicting cosmological stories in the Egyptian canon; for example, Ra was the major deity in Heliopolis (Awanu), so myths from that city describe the creation of the world as his doing and all of existence as being made from his bodily fluids and creative emissions, while Ptah was the major god of Memphis (Menefer), which means that all the creation stories from that area are about him sculpting the universe out of primordial earth. Different cult centers had different worshipers with different priorities, so different areas of ancient Egypt might have had different ideas about what gods were most important, even during the periods when the kingdoms were theoretically united by a state religion.

In these cases, combo deities arose because of commerce between different cult centers; the inhabitants of one city might plunder the attributes of a major deity from elsewhere and add them to their own major god, such as when the people of Elephantine (Aswan) who worshiped Khnum as their most important river god occasionally borrowed for him the crocodile head of Sobek, who was the major river deity of Crocodilopolis (Shedet), in order to illustrate that Sobek was subordinate to him and that any Sobek stuff going on was clearly just Khnum stuff in disguise, or that those people worshiping Sobek were in fact worshiping Khnum, just in his crocodilian form. That way, the cult center got to keep their conviction in which deity was the most important and crucial in that area without having to do something drastic like declaring that the other god their neighbors worshiped didn't exist; both gods do exist, but one just happens to be a form of another, and over time, the whole area begins to consider both gods in their hybrid form together instead of as separate figures. Or, more harmoniously, you might get a combo deity because worshipers of two such gods see the other deity's useful attributes and want to apply them to their own, and the two are fused because they're similar but have individual qualities that enhance a new whole.

Left to right: Khnum, Khnum-Sobek, Sobek

All of this would (and did!) cause a huge amount of syncretic combination between deities even without outside influence... but outside influence is inevitable over such a long span of time, and there were multiple waves of invaders, settlers, and conquerors in Egypt over the many many centuries. They brought their own gods with them, and in fine Egyptian tradition, those got added to the giant bowl of Frankensteined connection deities to create even more new gods, these ones uniquely Egyptian even if they were based on deities from elsewhere. The Hyksos culture rolled in to conquer the Lower Kingdom and, since they were all about Sutekh, a thunder and chaos god, the local Egyptians merrily absorbed him into Set, the local thunder and chaos god, to keep right on doing what they were doing (by the way, this is the root of why Set begin to go from being respected as the muscle of the pantheon and the protector of Ra to being universally reviled; nobody likes the dude who is in charge of the invaders who are brutally conquering you with their fancy new "chariot" technology, and when the Greeks showed up to also align Set with the evil monster Typhon, his fate was sealed). The Canaanite cultural influx from the northeast brought Baal in and added him to Set as well (Set: the most thundery of thunder deities) and since they had several warlike goddesses in Astarte and Anat, their influence encouraged the Egyptians to identify their own love/fertility and war goddesses together, further solidifying the concept of a savage Eye of Ra that was also a nurturing mother figure once calmed down.

And, of course, Greece and Rome were only a short boat ride away, and even before they started conquering everything around the Mediterranean like the rabid expansionists they were, they were sharing their own deities as well. Greek gods like Hera and Dionysos were borrowed and attached to new syncretic deities, resulting in Isis-Hera and Serapis, a very intentionally created combination deity made up of Osiris + Apis + Dionysos in order to give Roman rulers in Egypt a popular deity that fell in line with their own religion but would be appealing to the Egyptian locals and calm down religious unrest. Because Greek and Roman religious policy was to point at any local deity they encountered and say "cool story, but that's really , you're just calling them by the wrong name", they were already identifying gods with other gods as a matter of course, so the Egyptians just took their proto-syncretisms and added them to their own practice of combining gods with similar functions or helpful combo forms to continue what they'd been doing for centuries before Greek interference. (Which worked out well for them, since the Greek and Roman overlords blithely assumed the Egyptians had immediately come over to believing in their religions without much trouble when in fact they were juts cannibalizing them for their own religion but nodding sagely whenever the Romans asked if they were behaving themselves.)

The interesting thing is that, of course, these are things that happen in pretty much all ancient religions. Different people import and export their religion when they move around, and evolving politics and areas of focus change over time and result in gods needing to change to represent and do new things happens in every culture. The difference for the Egyptians is a sort of recycling mentality; where some cultures drop or forget a god that has outlived their usefulness to the culture, or combine them with a new one but then claim the two were the same all along, the Egyptian paradigm operates on a neat alternative where individual gods are still important in their own right, but their many combined forms are also treated as individual and important ones as well. Ra and Amun and Atum all still exist, and Amun-Ra and Atum-Ra also exist, and they all do their own thing for their own purposes simultaneously in various places. Generally, no one feels the need to try to explain how Ra and Atum-Ra can both exist at the same time; the ancient Egyptians just wave over there at where they are clearly doing that and don't feel the need to explain further.

(Remember Akhenaten, author of the brief foray into Egyptian monotheism, who claimed that Aten was the only real deity in Egypt and all the other sun gods were just versions of him or else didn't exist? There is a reason that was so unpopular, and it wasn't just the issue of monotheism vs. polytheism having to overcome the problem of "I just declared your god doesn't exist" or the political clash between Akhenaten's pharaonic powers and the powerful priesthood of Ra. It was also very much counter to a culture that was used to saying that if there were two gods who had some of the same features, they were probably both legitimate in different ways or else forms of one another. Erasing one of them completely, let alone all of them, was not a popular move.)

Aten, no sycretism allowed!

In Hero's Journey, this tendency toward syncretism and expressing different forms for different peoples is expressed in the Egyptian Devotional powers, which involve being able to Voltron yourself into combination forms that do new and different things that your single form could not have. In this way, there's a specific mechanized form for Heroes and gods to deal with the concepts of multiple and combined identity in ancient Egyptian religion, starting with asserting their individual identity before progressing up to syncretic concepts. So be on the lookout for that in the future!

(As we mentioned above, since polytheistic religions in Hero's Journey are all continuous, the Egyptians do not end up being the oldest civilized religion in existence, even though in the real world they had the longest run; the Sumerian gods are at least as old, for example, and evidence from some Australian oral stories suggests that they've been passed down for up to ten thousand years, making them twice as old in spite of the western world tending to ignore them because of their emphasis on oral tradition over written and nomadic civilization over city-building. But the Egyptians are extremely old even for HJ, and their great antiquity in the real world gives us a lot of interesting material when it comes to looking at how gods change over time!)